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Mariana Cristescu, Damen Passo Doble, Editura Nico, Târgu Mures, 2012

Propunere de interpretare ale unor inscriptii si cuvinte traco-geto-dace


 

Extras din: Dobre Valentin-Claudiu, Scurta, uimitoare si fabuloasa istorisire despre Enigmatica  limba a  geto-dacilor, Editia a II-a revizuita si adaugita,  Editie electronica 2011, Bucuresti, 2011, ISBN 978-973-0-11128-6

(Continaure din editia precedenta)

Propunere de interpretare ale unor nume de plante:
Prescurtari: ro.- romana; aro.- aromana; istr.-istroromana; eg.- engleza; brt.-bretona; cg.- cornish gaelic (gaelica din Cornwallgd.- geto-daca; gdl.- gàidhlig/scotiana (gaelica din Scotia); h?.-hu?ula; irg.- irish gaelic (Gaeilge); lat.-latina; lt.-lituaniana; ltg.-latgalian (dialect al letonei); lv.- letona; mxg.- manx gaelic (Gaelg, Gailck); ps.-pashto (afgana); wls.- welsh (cymraeg- gaelica din Tara Galilor). Explica?iile sunt in engleza.

Referitor la numele de plante, Constantin Daicoviciu retine sase termeni ca fiind probabili de origine dacica: aniaserxe (iarba saraca), budathla (limba boului), diesema (coada vacii), dyn <urzica> (gdl. deanntag- eg. "nettle"), mizela (cimbru), riborasta (brusture).
In cele ce urmeaza, prezentam unele posibile corela?ii intre denumirile redate de Dioscoride ?i Pseudo-Apuleius ?i denumirile din celtica goidelica (Sunderland John Cameron- "The Gaelic Names of Plants <Scottish and Irish>, W. Blackwood and Sons, Edinburgh and London, MDCCCLXXXIII"), corela?ii aflate desigur sub semnul incertitudinii.

bessa assa; <ro. podbal/podval/podbeal; eg. colt’s foot; lat. tussilago farfara>; (irg. cassachdaighe);
gd. bles/bleta/blis/blita;<ro. stir, stir-alb, talpa-gastii; eg. allsead/amaranth/ chenopodium polyspremum ?; lat. amaranthus albus (angustifolius, blitum, retroflexus)>; (irg. bláth- eg. "flower, blossom; with white blossom" ? sau eg. love-lies-bleeding- lat. amaranthus caudatus ?);
gd. budathla/boudalla/buclama; <ro. limba boului; eg. bugloss; lat. anchusa officinalis>; (gdl. boglas- eg. "bugloss"+irg. odrad/odradh/t-ogradh- eg. "bugloss" ? Pentru gdl. boglas= gdl. lus teang’an daimh- eg. "bugloss", unde gdl. teang- eg. "tongue", gdl. daimh/damh- eg. "ox, stag");
gd. <c,k>aropithla/crepula; <ro. pojarni?a/sanitoare/sunatoare; aro. tindilina/cantarii; eg. the perforated St. John’s wort; lat. hypericum procumbens/ornithopus compressus/polypodium vulgare>; (gdl./irg. eala bhuide- lat. hypericum perforatum ? Gdl. cloch reatneach- traducere eg. "the stone fern" ?i irg. céis chrainn- traducere eg. "tax+tree, because it draws the substance from the trees" sub forma chrainn+reatneach=aro. cantarii ?);
gd. chodela/doc<d,t>ila/do<c>hela/dordila/dolecha/<n>emenepsa; <ro. jugarel/ lamaioara/tamai?a-de-camp/ pedicu?a/suliman pentru lat. ajuga reptans- eg. bugle; ro. branca-ursului, bradi?or, corni?or, pedica, pedicu?a pentru lat. lycopodium clavatum/annotium/ selago; ro. dumbe?/iarba-usturoasa/jugarel/usturoi-de-lac pentru lat. teucrium chamaedrys>; (wls. glesyn y coed- eg. "wood blue"- lat. ajuga reptans sau gdl.  saisde coille- eg. "wood-sage"-lat. teucrium scorodonia pentru gd. chodela ?i variantele ?; gdl. lus bhalgaire- eg. "the fox-weed" aduce cu ro. branca-ursului);
gd. cercer<aphron>/kerker<aphron, aphrum>/t<o>ura; <ro. brandu?a-de-toamna/ ceapa-ciorii/scante<i>u?a; aro. lilingi; eg. pimpernel; lat. anagallis arvensis>; (gdl./irg. falcaire fuair ? ?i gdl. loisgean cf. gdl. loisg- eg. "to put in flame"= ro. scante<i>u?a ?i gdl. ruinn ruise= ro. brandu?a-de-toamna ?vezi SC.58);
gd. c<r>oustane/ k<r>oustane;<ro. calce mare/crucea-voinicului /iarba-de-negi /iarba-randunelei/ negelari?a/ pleoscani?a/ rostopasca; eg. greater celandine/tetterwort; lat. chelidonium majus>; (gdl. an ceann ruadh – traducere eg. "the red head", poate sub forma gdl. ceann ruadh an?= gd. kroustane ? ?i irg. lacha cheann ruadh- traducere eg. "the read headed duck" asemanator ro. negelari?a = <nn>chea lacha ruadh ? Un alt cuvant gdl. aonsgoch- traducere eg. "the lonely flower" = ro. rostopasca= gdl. ruath aonsgoch ? In wls. llysie y wennol- traducere eg. "swallow wort"+ gdl. aonsgoc=ro. pleoscani?a poate sub forma wls. llysie + gdl. goc + aons ?);
gd. dacina/dak<e>ina;<ro. adormi?ele/dedi?el/sufle?ele/vanturele pentru lat. anemone pulsatilla; ro. napi, sfecla pentru lat. beta vulgaris; ro. helebor-alb/steregoaie/st<i>rigoaie  pentru lat. veratrum album>; (irg. nead chailleach- eg. "old’s woman nest"- lat. anemone nemorosa; wls. llysiau’r gwynt- gdl. plùr na gaoithe- eg. "wind-flower" sau o combinatie intre wls. ?i gdl. ar corespunde ro. strigoaie ?);
gd. dieleian;<ro. masalar/maselari?a/nebulari?a; eg. henbane; lat. hyoscyamus niger>; (gdl./irg. deo<dha>/detheogha- traducere eg. "breath, that which is destructive to life" + wls. slewig yr iàr- traducere eg. "preventing or curing faintness", mxg.  lus ny meisht- eg. "henbane". Ro. masalar/maselari?a o varianta a wls. slewig yr iàr sau mxg. lus ny meisht? );
gd. dyn;<ro. urzica/oi?ea/urzica-mare; aro. urdzaca/urtica; eg. nettle; lat. urtica dioica>; (gdl. deanntag/feanntag/ feargaich/loiteag- eg. "nettle"; gdl. ruaidhe/breac-shìth- eg. "nettle rush"; gdl. praiseach-a’-bhalla - eg. "nettle-leaved goosefoot"=ro. spanac salbatic= lat. chenopodium, mxg. undaagagh- eg. stinging nettle, jenny nettles" unde gdl. praiseach ?i mxg. undaagagh amintesc cumva de ro. oi?ea ?i de ro. urzica);
gd. <d>zena;<ro. bucini?/cucuta <mare/mica/de apa>/ dudaie; aro. cucuta; eg. water-hemlock; lat. cicuta virosa sau poate conium maculatum ?>; (wls. cegid cu supranumele wls. gwin dillad- traducere eg. "pain killer" = gd. <d>zena ? Irg./gdl. <fealla> bog cf. ro. bucini? ? Sau ro.  din lt. bucinys- eg. "kiss" ? Pentru ro. dudaie= mxg. aghaue- eg. "hemlock" ?);
gd. <h>orm<e,i>a/hormes; <ro. jale/jale-de-camp/salvie/salvie-de-camp/salvie-domestica; aro. rusfakeaua; eg. garden-sage; lat. salvia officinalis>; (gdl./irg. torman- eg. clary- lat. salvia verbenacea. Explica?ie vezi SC.53: eg. "torman, applies to the genus as well as to this plant ; it simply means <the shrubby one; tor, a bush or shrub>. The genus consistsof herbs or undershrubs, which have generally a rugose appearance." Gdl. athair liath- eg. garden-sage-  traducere eg. "the grey father"- lat. salvia verbenacea=ro. jale ? Gdl. slàn lus=lat. salvere- traducere eg. "the healing plant");
gd. <h>olma; <ro. boj/bozie/boz; aro. ibozu/iboju;  eg. dwarf elder; lat. sambucus ebulus>; (posibil sa corespunda wls. mwyll+artaith- eg. dwarf elder- traducere eg.   "emollient + torment" poate in ordine inversata wls.artaith+ mwyll ? EI);
gd. laca/lax; <ro. iarba-grasa/iarba-ciutei/iarba-de-ureche/urechelni?a/urecheri?a; eg. house-leek; lat. portulaca oleracea/sempervivum tectorum>; (gdl. lus nan cluas- traducere eg. "the ear plant", gdl. lus gharaidh- traducere eg. "the garden-wort"; gdl. tin gealach/tineas na gealaich- eg. "lunnacy-tinn");
gd. miz<e,i>la/miz<o>ula/mo<u>z<o>ula;<ro. cimbru; aro. cimbru/cimburica; 1. eg. brotherwort=ro. cimbrisor= lat. thymus serpillum; 2. eg. savory=ro. cimbru=lat. satureja hortensis; 3. eg. thyme=ro. cimbru adevarat/lamaita=lat. thymus vulgaris>; (gdl./irg. lus mhic righ Bhreatainn- traducere eg. "the plant belonging to the king of Britain’s son"- lat. thymus serpyllum poate sub forma mhic lus.);
gd. parit<h>ia;<ro. pir gros/iarba-paji?tei; eg.dog-grass/twitch ; lat. triticum repens>; (gdl. fiothran/feur a'- phuint- eg. "dog-grass" ?);
gd. prodi<a,o>rna;<ro. spanz; aro. spingiu, ht. spendz; eg. bear’s foot; lat. helleborus niger purpurascens>; (irg.<gall>fothannán- eg. "bear’s foot", unde irg. fothannán- eg.  "a thistle" ?);
gd. riborasta;<ro. brusture/lipan; aro. broshtu<ru>/brostu/brusht<iru,ura>; eg. burdock=lat. arctium lappa>; (gdl. cliadan/ leadan liosda/meacan/meacan dogha/searcan/seircean/seircean mòr/ sercean suirich/ burr ceòsan- eg. "burdock". Poate gd. riborasta compus de tipul gdl. <sui>rich+gdl. burr ceòsan ? Mxg. bollan dhoa/cramman sooree- eg. "burdock" ?);
gd. seba; <ro. soc/iboz; eg. common elder; aro. boz/profcu/socu/vuj<i,u>/zambaca/zambacu; lat. sambucus nigra>; (wls. ysgawen- eg. "elder"=ro. soc=gd. seba ?);
gd. teud<e>ila/ta<u,vi>dila;<ro. busuiocul-cerbilor/ghiazma/isma/izma-de-camp/menta/ minta/piperigi; aro. menta/menda/yizma; istr. slavulie- ro. "buruiana al carui miros seamana cu al izmei"; eg. mint; lat. mentha piperita (aquatica, gentilis, longifolia, pulegium, rotundifolia, silvestris, spicata, tomentosa, viridis)>; (wls. dail y gwaed- traducere eg. "blood leaf"- lat. mentha pulegium pentru gd. teudeila; ro. piperigi cf. gdl. peighinn rioghail- eg. "pennyroyal"; ro. isma/izma-de-camp/ghiazmaar corespunde gdl. misimean dearg- eg. "the rough red mint"- lat. mentha aquatica  vezi SC.52 sau gdl. mionnt each- eg. "horsemint"- lat. mentha sylvestris poate sub forma each mionnt ?);
gd. toulb<e,i>la/tulb<a,e>la; <ro. corobatica/dioc/fierea-pamantului/frigurica/ghioc/ frigor/potroaca/sglavoc/ smoc/?intaura; eg. red gentian; lat. erithraea centaurium>; (gdl. ceud bhileac- traducere eg. hundred-leavedvezi SC.48 cf. Armstrong);
gd. udacila/usagila/usazila; <ro. arierel/ara?el/boroboan?a/limba-cainelui/limba-mielului/otra?el; eg. hound’s tongue; lat. cynoglossum officinale>; (wls. tafod y ci- eg. "dog’s tongue" poate sub forma viciata <taf>od y ci).


Pentru unele plante, denumirile in romana ar putea aduce cu denumirile celtice:
gd. absentium/bitumen/zired/zonusta...etc.; <ro. pelin/pelin-alb/pelin-brun/pelin-negru/pelinarita/piloniu; eg. common wormwood; lat. artemisia absinthium/vulgaris>; (Gdl. meath chaltuin- lat. artemisia  abrotanum= ro. pelin ?; irg. surabhan/suramont si wls. siwdrmwt- lat. artemisia  abrotanum= gd. zired vezi SC.40);
gd. arborria/arpropria/edera; <ro. iarba-zanelor/iedera; aro. iadir<a,i,ishu>; istr. bir?lian; eg. ivy; lat. hedera helix>; (gdl. eidheann= ro. <iarba->zanelor ?). Dacicul mai apropiat de istr. ?;
gd. <c,k>oadama/koalama/kardama; <ro. broasca-apei/broscari?a/broscari?a-plutitoare/codru/limba-bal?ilor/limba-broa?tei/limba-oii/limbari?a/podbal-de-apa/patlagina-apei; eg. broad-leaved pondweed; lat. potamogeton natans>; (irg. liachroda=ro. codru, gdl. liobhag=ro. limba-bal?ilor/limba-broa?tei/limba-oii ?);
gd. diesema/diesapter; <coada-boului/coada-lupului/coada-mielului/coada-vacii/lumanare/lumanarica; eg. cow’s lungwort; lat. verbascum thapsus>; (gdl./irg. cuineal Mhuire/cuingeal Mhuire= ro. coada-mielului sau ro. lumanare/lumanarica);
bessa ionitis; <ro. aconit/curcube?ica/omag/omag-veninos/marul-lupului; eg. monkshood/Monk’s Hood; lat. aconitum napellus (toxicum)>; (gdl. fuath mhadhaidh = ro. omag ?);
gd. toutastra/tutrastra; <ro. bo?ar/castravete/dovleac/harbuz/lebeni?a/lubeni?a/ pepene-verde/?iarchim; aro. carpuzu/cucumbiciu/hiumanicu/peapini/shirkinu; eg. melon echivaleaza cu lat. cucumis melo; lat. cucumis citrullus>; (gdl./irg. meal-bhuc/meal-bhucain <plural>- lat. cucumis melo aduce cu ro. lebeni?a/lubeni?a).


Alte exemple:
ro. afin; <eg. whortleberry; lat. vaccinium myrtillus>; (gdl. fraochan- eg. "whortleberry"- traducere eg. "that which grows among the heather"sau gdl. dearcati-fithich- traducere eg. "the raven's berries"vezi SC.45; wls. afanwydd<en>- eg. "raspberry-bush<es>"; ek. afi/ahabi- eg. "whortleberry");
ro. anghinare; < aro. kinara/anghinara ; eg. artichoke; lat. cynara scolymus>; (gdl. plur na greine- explica?ie eg. "to the flower, from the popular error that the flower turns with the sun"- eg. artichoke);
ro. ciuperca de balegar/ciuperca de gunoi; <aro. buburecu/bureati/ ciupernica/ guguljeana/peciurca; eg. field mushroom; lat. agaricus campestris>; (gdl. balg bhuachail- traducere eg. "wallet+sheperd", gdl. bàlg bhuachairunde unde gdl. buachar- eg. "dung"; gdl. balg losgainn considerat din gdl. losgann- eg. "a frog");
ro. dracila;<eg. barberry; lat. berberis vulgaris>; (gdl. brabrag, dar ?i gdl. preas nan gear dhearc- eg. "the sour berry -bush" sau gdl. preas deilgneach- eg. "the prickly bush" sau gdl. dearc- eg. "a berry" cf. gdl. gearr-dhearc- eg. "whortleberry"- traducere eg. "sour berry" poate sub forma dhearc-gearr);
ro. mace?; <eg. dog-rose; lat. rosa-canina>; (irg. mhadra sgeach- traducere eg. "the dog’s haw or bush" ?);
ro. obligeana; <eg. sweet-flag; lat. acorus calamus>; (gdl. cobhan cuile- traducere eg. "an ark of bulrushes"+ gdl. cuile chrann- traducere eg. "cane"; mxg. cliogagh millish- eg. "sweet flag" ?);
ro. stejar; <eg. oak; lat. quercus-robur>; (gdl. eitheach- eg. "oak"+ gdl. dair/dàrach- eg. "oak");
ro. zmeur; < ro. zmeura=aro. <a>znjiura/capinca/gljiura; ro. zmeur=aro. pilivuri; eg. raspberry; lat. rubus idaeus>; (gdl. craobh nan smèur/smear phreas/dris-smear/smearachd- lat. rubus fruticosus, wls. miar- lat. rubus fruticosus; mxg. smeyr- eg. "blackbery, berry", mxg. smeyr yiarg- eg. "Chinese raspberry, wineberry");

Concluzii:
Departe de a face lumina, aceste interpretari induc ?i mai multe semne de intrebare asupra originii ?i familiei de afiliere a limbilor traca ?i respectiv geto-daca. Daca despre traca a? putea conchide ca prezinta unele coresponden?e cu limba lituaniana, despre geto-daca inclin sa afirm ca prezinta o variabilitate despre care a? dori sa vorbesc cu o cu totul alta ocazie.
 
SURSE
DER- Dictionarul Etimologic Roman
DEX- Academia Romana, Institutul de Lingvistica "Iorgu Iordan" - Dictionarul Explicativ al Limbii Romane, Editia a II-a, Ed. Univers
SC.xx- Sunderland John Cameron- "The Gaelic Names of Plants (Scottish and Irish), W. Blackwood and Sons, Edinburgh and London, MDCCCLXXXIII"- (pagina)xx
Alte surse:
- Pentru bretona, irish gaelic, gaelic- gàidhlig: www. wordgumbo.com/ ie/cmp/index.htm si Robertson James A.- "The Gaelic Topography of Scotland, Edinburgh, 1869"
- Pentru gaelica din Cornwall, cornish gaelic: Robert Williams- "A Dictionary of the ancient celtic language of Cornwall, Llandovery Roderic, London, Trubner & Co., MDCCCLXV"; Bock A., Bruch B., Kennedy N., Prohaska D., Rule L.- "An English - Cornish Glossary in the Standard Written Form, Version 14/08/2010, Ed. electronica"; pentru manx gaelic: http:// www. gaelg.iofm. net/ DICTIONARY/dict2/index.html
- Pentru latgalian: http: //latgola.lv/voluda/vuordineicys/cyulltg.shtml
- Pentru letona:  www. dictionary.site.lv si www.letonika.lv
- Pentru lituaniana: www. anglu-lietuviu.com; Harold H. Bender- "A Lithuanian Etymological Index, Ed. Princeton Univ. Press, Princeton-London, Humphrey Milford Oxford University Press, 1921" (in  gm.)
- Pentru nepali: Karunakar Baidya- "Teach Yourself Nepali, A Tourist Manual, Published by: Ratna Pustak Bhandar, Bhotahity, Kathmandu, 1997"; http: //dsal.uchicago.edu/cgi-bin/romadict.pl?query =y&table=schmidt
- Pentru pashto (afgana): Tegey Habibullah, Robson Barbara- "Beginning Pashto Textbook, Center for Applied Linguistics, Washington, ED 323763" si Raverty, H. G. (Henry George). A dictionary of the Puk’to, Pus’to, or language of the Afghans: with remarks on the originality of the language, and it’s affinity to other oriental tongues. Second edition, with considerable additions. London: Williams and Norgate, 1867 din sursa http://dsal. uchicago.edu/dictionaries/ raverty/
- Pentru punjabi: http://www.ijunoon.com/punjabi/dictionary.aspx?word=?
- Pentru samogitian: Wikipedia
http://bat-smg.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lietoviu_-_%C5%BEemaitiu_kalbu_%C5%BEu od %C4%ABns si http://bat-smg.wikipedia.org/wiki/%C5%BDemait%C4%97%C5%A1ks_%C5%BE uod%C4%Abnielis
-Pentru traca: www. groznijat.tripod.com/thrac/index.html lucrarea Duridanov Ivan- "The Language of the Thracians" (in limba engleza)

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