Corneliu LEU - SECOLUL SI DEMOCRATIA
Mariana Cristescu, Damen Passo Doble, Editura Nico, Târgu Mures, 2012

Cazul romilor europeni

Unde sunt romii in tablourile identitatilor? Romii lipsesc din marea parte a descrierilor de situatie din Europa, iar faptul are explicatii multiple.

In primul rand, romii nu si-au creat o elita intelectuala capabila sa le reconstituie istoria si sa le precizeze locul in istorie. In Europa nu ti se recunoaste identitatea pana nu prezinti un certificat istoric. In al doilea rand, in interactiunile cu celelalte grupuri care s-au identificat, romii se prezinta inca drept un grup difuz, neorganizat si ignorabil. In al treilea rand, romii nu s-au pregatit si structurat profesional in asa masura incat sa joace un rol distinct, recognoscibil in economia actuala. Ei nu pot indica acum vreun sector economic semnificativ pe care-l reprezinta. In al patrulea rand, romii nu au folosit sistemul educational pus in functiune in tarile europene din ultimele secole si platesc cu pretul marginalizarii lacunele prelungite ale educatiei.

Ca urmare a acestor factori, romii sunt, inainte de toate, marginalizati. Un elocvent volum (Mark Norman Templeton, On the Margins. Roma and Public Services in Romania, Bulgaria and Macedonia. Open Society Institute, New York, 2001) vorbea de 2-7% din populatia Romaniei, Bulgariei si Macedoniei care sunt romi si "overrepresented in all categories in need of social protection the very poor, the long-term unemployed, the unskilled, the uneducated, members of large families, and individuals without residence permits, identity documents or citizenship papers" (p. 2). In social protection, health care, housing - in toate aceste domenii romii sunt dezavantajati si au cea mai mica parte, chiar si atunci cand astfel de tinte se realizeaza.

Aceste caracteristici ale "marginalizarii" nu sunt doar istorice. "Although Roma have historically been among the poorest people in Europe, this has been an unprecedented collapse in their living conditions in the former socialist countries. While most Roma had jobs during the socialist era, formal unemployment is now widespread. Even in the new EU member states and leading candidate countries, the levels of poverty are striking. Roma poverty rates range between 4-10 times than non-Roma in Bulgaria, Hungary and Romania. Because of higher birth rates, the relative size of the Roma population is increasing across the region" (Dena Ringold, Mitchell A. Orenstein, Erika Wilkens, Roma in Expanding Europe: Breaking the Poverty Circle, The World Bank, Washington DC, 2005, p. 2). De aceea, "saracia (poverty)" este marea provocare la adresa romilor europeni si a europenilor, carora le pasa de situatia romilor. In tranzitia care a avut loc dupa 1989, de la socialismul oriental la societatile deschise de astazi, cum se spune in acelasi studiu, "the poverty and social exclusion ... are more acute for Roma. Transition has had a worse impact on Roma than other groups of interconnected reasons: legacies of past policies, low skill levels and educational attainment of Roma, a tendency toward cultural separation, a history of poor relations with the mainstream societies and states of Europe, poor policy responses, and a reduction in social spending caused in large part by macroeconomic decline" (p. 23).

Marginalizarea si lovirea de saracie nu incheie insa soarta romilor europeni. La acestea se adauga imediat "discriminarea (discrimination)": romii sunt priviti ca oameni de alta categorie.

"Discriminarea" incepe cu cea din copilarie (chiar din jocurile copiilor) si se resimte deja la nivelul scolii. Comisia Europeana semnala, pe drept (Comisia Europeana, Segregation of Roma Children in Education. Addressing Structural Discrimination through the Race Equality Directive, 2007), ca in tarile noi membre ale Uniunii Europene copiii romi sufera discriminari in forme variate si duc pana la urma la "absenteeism and drop out, the accommodation to a travelling way of living and on the unintended effects residential segregation" (p. 4).

Bookmark and Share
Tipareste acest articol
O noua aparitie editoriala - Elena Chirita
STEFAN CUCU - „EMBLEMATIC FILOLOG CLASIC ROMÂN DE AZI”
Coperta Carte - Elena Chirita
Elena Chirita - Cum vorbim in public
Madalina Corina Diaconu
Madalina Corina Diaconu
Lazar Ladariu –„Secunda de pamânt”
HOLOCAUST. Destine la rascruce
Elena Chirita - POLITICA SI DIPLOMATIE - interviuri
Mariana Cristescu - Trandafirii desertului
Pentru Credinta, Neam si Tara de Lazar Ladariu si Mariana Cristescu
Locations of visitors to this page